Indian Council of Agricultural Research


ICAR-CMFRI releases estimates of marine fish landings in India-2016; India’s marine fish catch increases 6.6%

India’s total marine fish landings recorded a slight increase of 6.6 per cent during 2016 compared to the previous year with a production of 3.63 million tonnes against 3.40 million tonnes in 2015. The estimates of country’s marine fish landings of 2016 released by the Kochi headquartered ICAR-Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute (CMFRI) on 20th May 2017 highlighted that for the first time after 1998 sardine was not the top-ranked species in terms of the landings in the country.

According to ICAR-CMFRI’s estimates, Gujarat remained at the top position for the fourth consecutive year with a production of 7.74 lakh tonnes followed by Tamil Nadu (7.07 lakh tonnes) and Karnataka (5.29 lakh tonnes). Even as Kerala, one of the major fish consuming States in the country, was slipped down to fourth spot for the first time in the history, the state registered an 8% increase in its total marine fish catch over the previous year producing 5.23 lakh tonnes in 2016. West Bengal, Karnataka, Gujarat, Kerala, Maharashtra and Daman & Diu witnessed a hike in the marine fish landings, whereas other states including Tamil Nadu registered a fall in the catch in varying degrees. 

Karnataka boosted its landings to reach to the third spot in the country by a production of 5.29 lakh tonnes ahead of Kerala, recording 19.6% increase over the previous year. In 2015 Karnataka was in the fourth position in the country.

Mackerel tops in India

Mackerel, the national fish was placed the first spot of the major resources obtained all over the country, after a long interval from 1999 with an overall production of 2.5 lakh tonnes ahead of oil sardine (2.44 lakh tonnes).  However, the catch of mackerel dropped by 33% in Kerala.

A significant change observed during 2016 was the landing patter of bulls eye (Priacanthus spp). From a mere 4,691 tonnes in 2015, the catch of the fish was escalated to a six-times-high of 1.3 lakh tonnes this year. The fish emerged as a major resource in the landings with high production in the West Coast where Karnataka contributed the maximum.

Huge hike in Hilsa

A huge hike in the landings of Hilsa shad, the most favourite fish of people of West Bengal, helped the state to increase its marine fish production to 2.72 lakh tonnes. The fish recovered from its previous trends of dwindling catch to reach 94,000 tonnes, a four-fold increase compared to 2015. The revival of Hilsa helped the West Bengal to increase its marine fish production to 2.72 lakh tonnes in 2016 from a 1.18 lakh tonnes of 2015, a huge upsurge in the catch.  

Catch declined in Andhra Pradesh

At the same time, fish catch dropped significantly in Andhra Pradesh and Odisha mainly due to the cyclone which reduced fishing days in these states. Andhra Pradesh recorded a decrease of 35% during 2016 over the previous year, while 17% of catch declined in Odisha.

The marine fish landing estimates of the ICAR-CMFRI also showed that chub mackerel (Scomber indicus), the new fish described by the CMFRI last year, was limited to the Kerala coasts only. Around one thousand tonnes of this resource was landed off the Kerala coasts during 2016.  

20% increase in value of fish

The estimate of value of marine fish landings during 2016 at the landing centre level in the country was ? 48,381 crores, registering an increase of 20.7% compared to 2015. At the retail level, the estimated value was ? 73,289 crores with an increase of 12.4% over the previous year. Even as the landings increased in the state, Kerala suffered a fall of 18.1% over previous year in the value of fish catch at the retail centres.

The Fisheries Resource Assessment Division of the ICAR-CMFRI estimated the annual marine fish landings of the country.

Dr A Gopalakrishnan, Director of ICAR-CMFRI released the estimates. According to him, the marine capture fisheries is experiencing more fishing pressure and there is urgent need to implement control measures to maintain the harvest at sustainable levels. “Also, we have to explore the utilisation of untapped and unconventional resources to quench the demand.  Further, climate change, particularly the increase of sea surface temperature and mean sea level rise are factors affecting the marine fisheries. The ICAR-CMFRI is carrying out research works for developing frameworks to mitigate such challenges”, he added.

Dr T V Sathianandan, Head, Fishery Resources Assessment Division, presented the findings. Various Heads of Divisions Dr K Sunil Muhammed, Dr G Maheshwarudu, Dr Prathibha Rohit, Dr R Narayanakumar and Dr PU Zacharia also were present on the occasion. 

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Occurrence of Jaydia queketti (Osteichthyes: Apogonidae) from the Bycatch of Tropical Trawl Fishery

Note on Occurrence of Jaydia queketti (Osteichthyes: Apogonidae) from the Bycatch of Tropical Trawl Fishery - CMFRI Repository

Three specimens of apogonids species of total length 72.69, 106.28 and 110.67 mm were caught off Tuticorin at the depths of 90-100 m as a bycatch on 1st January 2013 from the commercial trawler operated from Tuticorin Fishing Harbour, Southeast coast of India. In this paper, on the occurrence of Jaydia queketti was figured and the comprehensive diagnostic features of the recorded specimens were elucidated. The species of this genus Jaydia is distributed continentally and often caught as a bycatch from shrimp or fish trawl. These species are widely distributed in New Guinea, larger islands in the Coral Sea, Australia, Arabian Sea of India and also from Africa to Japan. Nevertheless, the present observation shows the occurrence of J. queketti from the bycatch of trawl fishery operated along Gulf of Mannar, Southeast coast of India.



Bacterial Flora of Water and Rotifers in Outdoor Mass Culture Tanks Fed with Different Microalagal Diets

Bacterial Flora of Water and Rotifers in Outdoor Mass Culture Tanks Fed with Different Microalagal Diets - CMFRI Repository

Investigations were carried out on the bacterial flora of water and the quality of rotifers in outdoor mass culture tanks. Brachionus plicatilis and B. rotundiformis were cultured in 10 numbers of 1 tonne tanks and the physico-chemical parameters and microbial loads of water, and total bacterial and Vibrio loads of microalgae and rotifers, during the period 2014-15, were studied. The study revealed a significant variation of the ammonia levels and total bacterial loads with different diets (P < 0.05). A positive correlation was observed between the total bacterial loads of algal concentrations and loads of rotifers, but no correlation was observed between Vibrio loads of water and rotifers. The prevalence of Vibrio loads of rotifers was low in tanks fed with Nannochloropsis oculata and maximum Vibrio loads were recorded in Chaetoceros calcitrans fed rotifers. The Vibrio loads significantly varied with days of culture and also with the algal diets. A positive correlation was observed between the total Vibrio loads of water and rotifers.



Diversity of reef fishes in trap fishery at Keelakarai, Gulf of Mannar, south-east coast of India

Diversity of reef fishes in trap fishery at Keelakarai, Gulf of Mannar, south-east coast of India - CMFRI Repository

The diversity of finfishes caught in traps at Keelakarai, Gulf of Mannar was assessed quantitatively and qualitatively for a period of six years from July 2006 to June 2012. Average landing during the period was 109 t per year with maximum of 137 t during 2008-09. Among the 98 species of reef fishes landed, Siganus canaliculatus dominated (28%), followed by Scarus ghobban (21%). During the first two years of the study, S. ghobban dominated over S. canaliculatus and later the trend reversed. Family-wise, maximum contribution was by Siganidae (36%) followed by Scaridae (21%). Seasonally, the major peak was recorded during post-monsoon of 2009. The Shannon index of diversity was maximum during 2007-08. Cluster analysis indicated the highest similarity in species composition between 2010-11 and 2011-12. SIMPER analysis identified 26 species as most significant in creating the observed pattern of similarity for 90% cut off contributions. Ellipse plot showed statistically significant deviation in fish diversity between years. Reef fish landings showed an increasing trend from 2006-07 to 2008-09, a decline afterwards and then almost steady condition prevailed during the last two years of the study which implies that there is no scope for further increase in landings by trap fishery at Keelakarai.



Techno-economic performance of mechanised fishing in Karwar, Karnataka

Techno-economic performance of mechanised fishing in Karwar, Karnataka - CMFRI Repository

The techno-economic and financial performance of mechanised purse seiners and trawlers operating in Karwar Fishing Harbour was compared using various indicators. The average diesel consumption per trip was 179 l for purse seiners and 79 l for trawlers. The average operating cost and gross revenue per trip were `21,818 and `44,383 respectively for purse seiners and `4,803 and `6,571 respectively for trawlers. Oilsardines and mackerels contributed more than 85% of the catch of purse seiners whereas shrimps and flatfishes contributed nearly 50% of the catch of trawlers. Capital productivity was higher (operating ratio - 0.49) for purse seiners than trawlers (operating ratio - 0.73). The economic and financial performance indicators like net benefit-earnings ratio (0.43), benefit-cost (BC) ratio (1.75) and internal rate of return, IRR (117%) were higher for purse seiners which suggested that the investment on purse seiners is a more viable undertaking when compared to trawlers in the location.



Reproductive biology of the commercially important Uroteuthis (Photololigo) duvaucelii off Mangalore

Reproductive biology of the commercially important Uroteuthis (Photololigo) duvaucelii (d’ Orbigny [in 1835) off Mangalore, south-west coast of India - CMFRI Repository

Uroteuthis (Photololigo) duvaucelii is one of the commercially important inshore squid resources off the south-west coast of India. Length-weight relationship for this species indicated no significant difference between the sexes and hence, the relationship for both the sexes was represented with the common equation W = 0.4624 L2.1158. U. (P.) duvaucelii spawned throughout the year with peak spawning in May. Absolute fecundity ranged from 1,545 to 13,585 eggs with an average of 7,554 eggs. Size at first maturity indicated that females matured earlier at 70 mm DML (dorsal mantle length) whereas males matured little later at 90 mm DML. Males were observed to be dominant during most of the study period with overall male to female ratio of 1:0.93. Seasonal and size dependent variations in sex ratio were distinct.